Chemical equations, formula mass, Avogadro's number and the mole, empirical formulae, percentage compositions, balancing chemical equations, combustion analysis, stoichiometry based on chemical formulae, limiting reactants, theoretical yields.

Reactions in solution, concentrations, solution stoichiometry, titrations. Gas laws, ideal gas equation, stoichiometry calculations involving the ideal-gas equation.

Electronic structure and periodic properties of the chemical elements

Modern view of the atomic structure, wave nature of light, quantized energy, line spectra and the Bohr model, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum mechanics, atomic orbitals, quantum numbers, many-electron atoms, electron configuration, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rule.

Development of the Periodic Table, size of atoms and ions, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, trends and variations in the Periodic Table.

Chemical bonding

Basic concepts, octet rule, ionic bonding, covalent bonding and strengths of covalent bonds, bond polarity, Lewis structures and resonance structures, molecular shapes, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model, hybrid orbitals, multiple bonds, Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT) and second row diatomic molecules.

Intermolecular forces and bonding in solids.


1. Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, J.r., Bruce E. Bursten (2006). Chemistry: The Central Science, (10th Edition). Pearson Education.

2. Ralph H. Petrucci, William S. Harwood, F. Geoffrey Herring and Jefry D. Madura (2007). General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, (9th Edition). Pearson Education.

3. J.E. Brady & F. Senese (2004). Chemistry-Matter and its changes, (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons.

4. Nelson, J.H. and Kemp, K.C. (2006). Laboratory Experiments, Chemistry The Central Science. Pearson-Prentice Hall.