This course will discuss numerous aspects of Invertebrate Zoology including classification and phylogeny, species evolution, invertebrate diversity, adaptation, function, system, physiology, and life cycle in various environments. Several phyla will be discussed, including Protozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Annelida. Vertebrate Zoology is the study of animals with backbones. Evolution from Hemichordata and Protochordata to modern vertebrates will be discussed. Characteristics and evolutionary success of various vertebrate classes such as Agnatha, Placoderma, Ostracoderm, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibian, Reptilian, Aves and Mammal will be discussed with special references and comparison with vertebrate palaeontology and current status in vertebrate studies. The topic will be focused on several vertebrate issues such as anatomy, structure, adaptation, life cycles, diversity and conservation for each major class of vertebrate. In addition to the published facts about vertebrates, students will be introduced to important ideas in the areas of evolutionary biology, systematics, morphology, and ecology that form the basis of the conceptual understanding of a selected group of animals.

Course Outcome:
At the end of this course, students should be able to:
i) Identify the phylogeny of invertebrate animals
ii) Describe the historical background, pioneering scientist and earlier principle in vertebrate zoology
iii) Observe the different types of animals and prepare reports related to the activities
iv) Describing the diversity, evolution, function, and adaptation in the classification of invertebrate and vertebrate animals
Skill Level: Beginner